Friday, April 13, 2018

Letter Rates Between France and Italy


The Project
Postal agreements prior to the General Postal Union/Universal Postal Union in 1875 were highly diverse, though they show increased uniformity over time from 1850 to 1875 in Europe.  This post focuses on mail between France and Italy.  Last edited: Apr 16, 2018

Organization of this Post
This post is only partially constructed.  I have more information that needs to be integrated into the post, but that will likely wait until the end of the year.
  • Postal Arrangements (in progress)
  • France to Italy Prepaid Rates (in progress)
  • Italy to France Prepaid Rates (in progress)
  • Border Crossings (in progress)
  • Duchy of Savoy and the County of Nice (in progress)
Postal Arrangements: France and Italy
Prior to 1861, Italy was a diverse set of independent states.  The postal agreements set by the Kingdom of Sardinia became the basis of those used by the Kingdom of Italy.  To reflect this, I am including the prior Sardinian convention to show the development of the agreement.

Franco-Sardinian Convention of Nov 9, 1850
Effective on July 1, 1851, this convention used a linear weight progression along with a distance and/or carriage component.  The distance component simply translated itself to a special border rate that amounted to the same thing in the next convention.

French/Sardinian Rates July 1, 1851
Effective Date Rate Unit
Border < 30 km distance 25 centimes/centisemi 7.5 grams
All other distances 50 centimes/centisemi 7.5 grams
See carriage 70 centimes/centisemi 7.5 grams
The first convention was made available to Lombardy, Parma and Modena in June/July of 1859.  Tuscany joined in July of 1860.


Franco-Sardinian Convention of 1860
The new convention became effective on the first of the year.  The border rate maintained the same 30 km distance but the sea carriage rate was deleted from the language.  Postal rates declined slightly while the standard letter weight increased from 7.5 grams to 10 grams.  The Two Sicilies did not join until Oct 1, 1861, when the 1860 convention was already in place.  The depleted Roman States did not use Kingdom of Italy postal conventions until 1870.

Convention Snippets
1849 1858 1866
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Click on the text image to see a larger version.


Franco-Italian Convention of 1869
This is the first full convention between France and the Kingdom of Italy though both agreed to apply the Sardinian convention protocols prior to this.  The border rate was removed at this point in time.

France to Italy Prepaid Rates

Prepaid Letter Rates - France to Italy
Effective Date Rate Unit
Jan 1, 1861 (a) 40 centimes 10 grams
Jan 1, 1861 - border 20 centimes 10 grams
Aug 1, 1869 - all  (b) 40 centimes 10 grams
Jan 1, 1876 (GPU) 30 centimes 15 grams
May 1, 1878 (UPU) 25 centimes 15 grams
Oct 1, 1907 (UPU) 25 ctm / 15 ctm 15 g / add'l 15 g
(a) - Sicily and Naples (Two Sicilies) begin to use this convention Oct 1, 1861
(b) - the Papal States begin to use this convention Oct, 1870


40 ctms per 10 gms  : Aug 1, 1869 - Dec 31, 1875




Paris Feb 12 1875
Paris Etranger Feb 12 75 (verso)
1? Dist Feb 15 (verso)
Napoli Feb ? (verso)


Double Rate Example

Marseilles  Mar 24 1872
Modane-Torino Ambulant
       Mar 25 72 (verso)
Napoli Mar 26 72 (verso)


Italy to France Prepaid Rates

Letter Rates - Italy to France
Effective Date Rate Unit
Jan 1, 1861 (a) 40 centisemi 10 grams
Jan 1, 1861 - border 20 centisemi 10 grams
Aug 1, 1869 (b) 40 centisemi 10 grams
Jan 1, 1876 (GPU) 30 centisemi 15 grams
May 1, 1878 (UPU) 25  centisemi 15 grams
Oct 1, 1907 (UPU) 25 ctsm / 15 ctsm 15 g / add'l 15 g
(a) - Sicily and Naples (Two Sicilies) begin to use this convention Oct 1, 1861
(b) - the Papal States begin to use this convention Oct, 1870




40 centesimi per 10 grams : Jan 1, 1861 - Jul 31, 1869

Kingdom of Italy use of Sardinian stamps in Sardinia.

Torino Oct 7, 1861
Susa
Italie Lanslebourg Oct 9, 1861
St Jean de Maurienne
Lyon Oct 9 (verso)


40 centesimi per 10 grams : Aug 1, 1869 - Dec 31, 1875
 
Genova Aug 19, 1874
Ventimiglia - Nice (rail opened 1872)
Italie Amb Marseilles Aug 20
Bordeaux Aug 21, 1874


Border Crossings and Exchange Offices






The Ventimiglia Crossing:
The rail line from Genoa to Marseilles was entirely complete by 1872.




Duchy of Savoy and the County of Nice
The Treaty of Turin (Mar 24, 1860) ceded the Duchy of Savoy and the County of Nice to France (from Sardinia) which was confirmed by plebiscite not long after the signing of the treaty.  It is an interesting study in politics to read about the techniques used to insure that the plebiscite results matched the intentions of France and Sardinia.  Essentially, Savoy and Nice were the price of doing business with the French in the effort to free Lombardy/Venetia from Ausria.  
The Modane tunnel, under construction since 1857 was now partially in France.

Open Questions:


Resources
Les Tarifs Postaux Francais: Entre 1848 et 1916 by Jean-Louis Bourgouin
     This has been my "go to" site for determining French rates for some time.  Data appears to be backed up by postal acts and agreements of which I have confirmed some and I hope to collect access to others as well.

Convention material links on its way.

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